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Food for Thought, Thought for Action!


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Where are we heading?

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Human history is the history of both suffering and enjoyment. The paradox of our life is that we have taller buildings, but shorter tempers; wider freeways, but narrower viewpoints; we spend more, but have less; we buy more but enjoy it less.

We have bigger houses and smaller families; more conveniences, but less time; we have more degrees, but less sense; more knowledge, but less judgment; more experts, but more problems; more medicine, but less wellness.

We drink too much, spend too recklessly, laugh too little, drive too fast, get too angry too quickly, stay up too late, get up too tired, read too little, watch TV too much, and pray too seldom. We talk too much, love too seldom, and hate too often.

We’ve learned how to make a living, but not a life; We’ve added years to life, not life to years. We’ve been all the way to the moon and back, but have trouble crossing the street to meet the new neighbor. We’ve conquered outer space, but not inner space; We’ve done larger things, but not better things.

We’ve cleaned up the air, but polluted the soul; we’ve split the atom, but not our prejudice. We write more, but learn less; we plan more, but accomplish less. We’ve learned to rush, but not to wait; we have higher incomes, but, lower morals. We build more computers to hold more information to produce more copies than ever, but have less communication; We’ve become long on quantity, but short on quality.

These are the days of two incomes, but more divorce; of fancier houses, but broken homes. These are the days of quick trips, disposable diapers, throw away morality, one night stands, overweight bodies, and pills that do everything from cheer, to quiet, to kill. Where are we heading….?If we die tomorrow, the company that we are working for could easily replace us in a matter of days. But the family we left behind will feel the loss for the rest of their lives.

And come to think of it, we pour ourselves more into work than to our family an unwise investment indeed.

–Unknown author

My Philosophy: HARD WORK MUST MAKE OUR LIFE BETTER NOT BITTER.


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សមាវាចារ-Right Speech

១.​ និយាយក្នុងកាលដែលគួរនិយាយ
២.​ និយាយដោយពាក្យពិត
៣.​ និយាយដោយពាក្យពិរោះ​ ទន់ភ្លន់
៤.​ និយាយពាក្យដែលមានប្រយោជន៍
៥. និយាយប្រកបដោយចិត្តមេត្តា
…..ការប្រៀនប្រដៅរបស់ព្រះពុទ្ឋ


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Kalama Sutta-Ten Specific Sources Which Are Not Always True

The Buddha provides ten specific sources which should not be used to accept a specific teaching as true, without further verification:

Ma anussavena.
Do not believe something just because it has been passed along and retold for many generations. [Simpler: Do not be led by what you are told.]

Ma paramparaya.
Do not believe something merely because it has become a traditional practice. [Do not be led by whatever has been handed down from past generations.]

Ma itikiraya.
Do not believe something simply because it is well-known everywhere. [Do not be led by hearsay or common opinion.]

Ma Pitakasampadanena.
Do not believe something just because it is cited in a text. [Do not be led by what the scriptures say]

Ma takkahetu.
Do not believe something solely on the grounds of logical reasoning. [Do not be led by mere logic.]

Ma nayahetu.
Do not believe something merely because it accords with your philosophy. [Do not be led by mere deduction or inference.]

Ma akaraparivitakkena.
Do not believe something because it appeals to “common sense”. [Do not be led by considering only outward appearance.]

Ma ditthinijjhanakkhantiya.
Do not believe something just because you like the idea. [Do not be led by preconceived notions (and the theory reflected as an approval)]

Ma bhabbarupataya.
Do not believe something because the speaker seems trustworthy. [Do not be led by what seems acceptable; do not be led by what some seeming believable one says.]

Ma samano no garu ti.
Do not believe something thinking, “This is what our teacher says”. [Do not be led by what your teacher tells you is so.]

Kalamas, when you yourselves directly know, “This is [these things are] unwholesome, this is blameworthy, this is condemned or censured by the wise, these things when accepted and practised lead to poverty and harm and suffering,” then you should give them up.
Kalamas, when you yourselves directly know, “These things are wholesome, blameless, praised by the wise; when adopted and carried out they lead to well-being, prosperity and happiness,” then you should accept and practise them.”

Gautama Buddha, Kesaputti Sutta, 5th sutta (sutra) in the Book of Threes (Mahavagga) in the Gradual Sayings (Tika Nipata)

Summary

Sources of wisdom to avoid

The Buddha provides ten specific sources which should not be used to accept a specific teaching as true, without further verification:

  1. Oral history
  2. Traditional
  3. News sources
  4. Scriptures or other official texts
  5. Logical reasoning
  6. Philosophical reasoning
  7. Common sense
  8. One’s own opinions
  9. Authorities or experts
  10. One’s own teacher

 


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Hard Work for Happy Life or Hurting Life?

Do you study hard?

Why do you do so?

What do you hope for studying hard?

Here is an answer,to download click this link>>> Ideal-for-life.pps

                                                     A personal opinion about life from Nekrean

                                                                Source: Nekrean (Unknown)


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How to Have a Philosophical Dialogue?

Verbal discussion of serious topics is in no way tangential to the practice of philosophy. From Socratic gatherings to the philosophical conventions of today, thinking things through out loud—and in the presence of others—has always been of the essence of the philosophical method. (Most philosophical texts embody this give-and-take, either in explicit use of dialogue form or by a more subtle alteration of proposal, objection, and reply.) Your philosophical education demands that you enter into the great conversation of Western thought. A few suggestions may help:

  • Be prepared
    Productive dialogue presupposes informed participants. This means that during every class session, Continue reading


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How to Read Philosophical Texts

The assignments in your course require you to engage in a close reading of significant texts written by the major philosophers of the Western tradition. Since you may have had little experience in dealing with material of this sort, the prospect may be a little daunting at first. Philosophical prose is carefully crafted to achieve its own purposes, and reading it well requires a similar degree of care. Here are a few suggestions:

  • Do the assigned reading
    The philosophical texts simply are the content of the course; if you do not read, you will not learn. Coming to class without having read and listening to the discourse of those who have is no substitute for grappling with the material on your own. You can’t develop intellectual independence if you rely for your information on the opinions of other people, even when they happen to be correct.
  • Consider the context
    Philosophical writing, like literature of any genre, arises from a concrete historical setting. Approaching each text, you should keep in mind who wrote it, when and where it was published, for what audience it was originally intended, what purposes it was supposed to achieve, and how it has been received by the philosophical and general communities since its appearance. Introductory matter in your textbooks and the Internet resources accessed through the course syllabus will help you get off to a good start.
  • Take your time
    Careful reading cannot be rushed; you should allow plenty of time for a leisurely perusal of the material assigned each day. Individual learning styles certainly differ: some people function best by reading the same text several times with progressively more detailed attention; others prefer to work through the text patiently and diligently a single time. In either case, encourage yourself to slow down and engage the text at a personal level.
  • Spot crucial passages
    Although philosophers do not deliberately spin out pointlessly excessive verbiage (no, really!), most philosophical texts vary in density from page to page. It isn’t always obvious what matters most; philosophers sometimes glide superficially over the very points on which their entire argument depends. But with the practice you’ll be getting week by week, you’ll soon be able to highlight the most important portions of each assignment.
  • Identify central theses
    Each philosophical text is intended to convince us of the truth of particular propositions. Although these central theses are sometimes stated clearly and explicitly, authors often choose to present them more subtly in the context of the line of reasoning which they are established. Remember that the thesis may be either positive or negative, either the acceptance or the rejection of a philosophical position. At the most general level, you may find it helpful to survey the exam study questions in your course study aids file as you read each assigned text.
  • Locate supportive arguments
    Philosophers do not merely state opinions but also undertake to establish their truth. The methods employed to support philosophical theses can differ widely, but most of them will be expressed one of the forms of logical argumentation. That is, the philosopher will (explicitly or implicitly) offer premises that are clearly true and then claim that a sound inference from these premises leads inexorably to the desired conclusion. Although a disciplined study of the forms of logical reasoning is helpful, you’ll probably learn to recognize the most common patterns from early examples in your reading.
  • Assess the arguments
    Arguments are not all of equal cogency; we are obliged to accept the conclusion only if it is supported by correct inference from true premises. Thus, there are two different ways in which to question the legitimacy of a particular argument:

    • Ask whether the premises are true. (Remember that one or more of the premises of the argument may be unstated assumptions.)
    • Ask whether the inference from premises to conclusion is sound. (Here it will be helpful to think of applying the same pattern of reasoning to a more familiar case.)

    If all else fails, you may question the truth of the conclusion directly by proposing a counter-example which seems obviously to contradict it.

  • Look for connections
    Since these texts occur within a tradition, they are often directly related to each other. Within your reading of a particular philosopher, notice the way in which material in one portion of the text links up with material from another. As the semester proceeds, consider the ways in which each philosopher incorporates, appropriates, rejects, or responds to the work of those who have gone before. Finally, make every possible effort to relate this philosophical text to what you already know from courses in other disciplines and from your own life experiences.

Above all else, don’t worry! You’ll spend most of your class time going over the assigned readings, often in great detail. You’ll have plenty of opportunities to learn what other readers have found, to ask questions for clarification of puzzling passages, and to share your own insights with others. As the semester proceeds, you will grow ever more confident in your own capacity to interpret philosophical texts.

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Sources  ©1996-2002 Garth Kemerling.